Endnotes

The Zipper:
Image:
“Zipper,” Pattern Solutions, http://patternsolutions.net/portfolio.php?id=Vwrvh1LW&area=photo (accessed March 30, 2009).
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Background:
[1] Henry Petroski, The Evolution of Useful Things: How Everyday Artifacts- From Forks and Pins to Paper Clips and Zippers- Came to Be as They Are (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1994), 93-94.
[2] Ibid., 96.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Ibid., 97.
[5] Ibid.

Images in Order of Appearance:
“Sewing,” George Washington’s Mount Vernon Estate and Gardens, http://www.mountvernon.org/visit/plan/index.cfm/pid/877/ (accessed March 16, 2009).

“Silver Clasps,” BeadFX.com, http://www.beadfx.com/catalogue/findingsbaseclasps.php (accessed March 16, 2009).

“Button Hook,” Heirlooms Antiques Centre, http://www.heirloomsantiques.com.au/button-hook-p-359.html?name=Button%20Hook (accessed March 16, 2009).

“Victorian Graphic – Old High Button Shoe,” The Graphics Fairy, http://graphicsfairy.blogspot.com/2008/09/victorian-graphic-old-high-button-shoe.html (accessed March 16, 2009).
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Invention:
[1] “Fastening for Garments,” United States Patent Office No. 8,540, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/0008540.pdf (accessed January 31, 2009).
[2] Henry Petroski, Invention by Design: How Engineers Get from Thought to Thing (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), 68.
[3] Ibid.
[4] “Clasp Locker or Unlocker for Shoes,” United States Patent Office No. 504,038, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/0504038.pdf (accessed January 31, 2009).
[5] “Shoe Fastening,” United States Patent Office No. 504,037, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/0504037.pdf (accessed January 31, 2009).
[6] “Chain Making Machine,” United States Patent Office No. 699761, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/0699760.html (accessed January 31, 2009).
[7] Robert Friedel, “The History of the Zipper,” Invention and Technology Magazine 10, no. 1 (Summer 1994), http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/1994/1/1994_1_8.shtml (accessed January 31, 2009).
[8] Petroski, Invention by Design: How Engineers Get from Thought to Thing, 72.
[9] Ibid., 73.
[10] “Separable Fastener,” United States Patent Office No. 1236784, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/1236784.html (accessed January 31, 2009).
[11] “Separable Fastener,” United States Patent Office No. 1060378, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/1060378.html (accessed January 31, 2009).
[12] Friedel, “The History of the Zipper.”

Images in Order of Appearance:
“Fastening for Garments,” United States Patent Office No. 8540, patented Nov. 25 1851, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/0008540.html (accessed January 31, 2009).

“Clasp Locker or Unlocker for Shoes,” United States Patent Office No. 504038, patented Aug. 29 1893, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/0504038.html (accessed January 31, 2009).

“Chain Making Machine,” United States Patent Office No. 699761, patented May 13 1902, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/0699760.html (accessed January 31, 2009).

“C-curity,” Concordia, http://www.concordia-zipper.hu/term/02sub_09_tort.htm (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Plako,” Concordia, http://www.concordia-zipper.hu/term/02sub_09_tort.htm (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Separable Fastener,” United States Patent Office No. 1236784, patented Aug. 14 1917, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/1236784.html (accessed January 31, 2009).

“Separable Fastener,” United States Patent Office No. 1219881, patented Mar. 20, 1917, FreePatentsOnline, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/1219881.html (accessed January 31, 2009).

Video:
“How It’s Made (Season 4 / Episode 06 / Part 3),” Youtube.com, starts at 0:43 seconds, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TvRoHo6FBN0 (accessed March 16, 2009).
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Adoption:
[1] Henry Petroski, The Evolution of Useful Things: How Everyday Artifacts- From Forks and Pins to Paper Clips and Zippers- Came to Be as They Are (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1994), 108.
[2] Robert Friedel, “The History of the Zipper,” Invention and Technology Magazine 10, no. 1 (Summer 1994), http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/1994/1/1994_1_8.shtml (accessed January 31, 2009).
[3] Petroski, The Evolution of Useful Things, 109.
[4] Ibid., 110.
[5] “Lepovetsky Ink Blotter,” Saint Marys Antiques, http://www.oldstmaryspa.com/antique_detail.php?id=255 (accessed March 30, 2009).
[6] Henry Petroski, Invention by Design: How Engineers Get from Thought to Thing (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), 75.
[7] Friedel, “The History of the Zipper.”
[8] Petroski, Invention by Design: How Engineers Get from Thought to Thing, 111.
[9] Friedel, “The History of the Zipper.”
[10] Ibid.

Images in Order of Appearance:
“McCreery’s, Pittsburgh,” Remembering Great American Department Stores, http://dshistory.com/stores/mccreerys_pittsburgh/ (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Lewis Walker,” Concordia, http://www.concordia-zipper.hu/term/02sub_09_tort.htm (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Lepovetsky Ink Blotter,” Saint Marys Antiques, http://www.oldstmaryspa.com/antique_detail.php?id=255 (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Vintage 1928 Talon Zipper Fastener Ad,” La Dolce Vintage, http://www.cemetarian.com/shopping/pgm-more_information.php?id=2885&=SID#MOREINFO (accessed March 30, 2009).

“1932 Talon Look Mother I Dressed Myself Ad,” Tias.com, http://www.tias.com/3943/PictPage/1920833898.html (accessed March 30, 2009).

“1937 Talon Fasteners,” AdClassix.com, http://www.adclassix.com/a3/37talonpants.htm (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Talon Slide Fastener Ad 1946,” Tias.com, http://www.tias.com/3943/PictPage/3923338575.html (accessed March 30, 2009).

“1947 Talon Slide Fastener Sexy Woman Slip,” Tias.com, http://www.tias.com/3943/PictPage/1920975803.html (accessed March 30, 2009).

“1950 – Talon Zipper – Margaret O’Brien,” Tias,com, http://www.tias.com/3943/PictPage/1923089327.html (accessed March 30, 2009).

“1954 Talon Zipper Girdle,” AdClassix.com, http://www.adclassix.com/a3/54talonzippergirdle.htm (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Talon The Quality Zipper Ad 1954,” Tias.com, http://www.tias.com/3943/PictPage/1923042794.html (accessed March 30, 2009).
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Impact:
[1] Henry Petroski, Invention by Design: How Engineers Get from Thought to Thing (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), 78.
[2] Robert D. Friedel, Zipper: An Exploration in Novelty (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1994), 21.
[3] Ibid., 213.
[4] Ibid., 218.
[5] Ibid., 209.
[6] Ibid., 221-224.

Images in Order of Appearance:
“Plastic Zipper,” Made-in-China.com, http://www.made-in-china.com/showroom/fffzipper/product-detailSqoQCGndhzkm/China-Plastic-Zipper-30-O-E-.html (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Sticky Fingers- The Rolling Stones,” Critical Junctions, http://www.criticaljunctions.com/2008/02/sticky-fingers-rolling-stones.html (accessed March 30, 2009).

“The Sex Explosion,” Time.com, http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19690711,00.html (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Maxime Bernier’s Open Fly is Security Breach – Color,” by Bruce MacKinnon, Artizans, https://zone.artizans.com/product.htm?pid=339131 (accessed March 30, 2009).

“Marlon Brando,” Dr. Macro’s High Quality Movie Scans, http://www.doctormacro1.info/Movie%20Star%20Pages/Brando,%20Marlon-Annex2.htm (accessed March 30, 2009).

Video:
“Gilda,” YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7A-e7UnTa2k (accessed March 30, 2009).

Audio File:
Robert Friedel and Alexander Horniman, “Zipper!” Virginia Foundation for the Humanities Web site, With Good Reason Archives, http://www.virginiafoundation.org/media/wgr/archives/2007/jan07wgr.html (accessed January 31, 2009).

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